The Jacobite Risings went on over a period of almost 60 years, from 1688 to 1746. They were a series of battles, or revolts, or rebellions, whose aim was to try to restore the House of Stuart to the thrones of England and Scotland (later, Great Britain.) Not successful in the end, but interesting. Their most famous pretender, James III and VIII, sailed from Dunkirk in 1708 for the Firth of Forth to invade with the help of 6,000 French in 30 ships. They were thwarted by the Royal Navy and harassed all the way back to Dunkirk. That attempt was rather disappointing, if you are of the Scottish or Irish persuasion.
Confused? Losing interest? Let's try it from a different angle.
James I and VI
Restoration of Stuart with Charles II (The current Prince of Wales will be, probably, Charles III. The Charles' don't have that great a record and one wonders why his Mum named him that, but maybe he will choose to be King Arthur instead. His call.)
James II (Fled England 1688 and thus is considered to have abdicated)
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 saw William III of Orange, Netherlands, installed as William III of England and Ireland. Ruling Scotland, he was William II. He ruled jointly from 1689 with Mary II, protestant daughter of the above abdicated James II and VII. She died in 1694. The period of their joint reign is known as William and Mary.
Ex-James II made one serious attempt to recover the throne for the Stuarts in 1689, landing in Ireland. He was defeated by the forces of William at the Battle of the Boyne the next year and returned to France where he set up a pretender court, sponsored by his cousin the Sun King (Louis XIV), and "ruled" from there. The Orange Institution of Northern Ireland was begun in honor of William's victory at the Boyne, and continues to this day.
Anne ascended to the throne upon the death of William III in 1702. His joint regent, Queen Mary, was her sister. She was (of course) also a daughter of the former James II and VII. Anne was, technically, the last Queen of England and the last Queen of Scots. Her short reign ended in 1714. The Act of Union occurred in 1707, so she reigned as British Queen from 1707. She died without an heir and was the last monarch descended from the House of Stuart.
Anne was a good eater, and enjoyed her rich food. Terrible gout was her reward. She suffered a stroke shortly before her death and was rendered unable to speak. She was 49. She died of erysipelas (she was almost certainly diabetic) and was buried in the Henry VII Chapel of Westminster Abbey. Her body was so swollen and large that it was borne in a vast, almost square, coffin. (Wikipedia)
The Hanovers arrive from Germany.
George I was the second cousin of Queen Anne.
George was Anne's closest protestant relative.
The Jacobites attempted to replace George with their Catholic Stuart candidate (Anne had over 50 relatives who were closer by blood than George was, but they were all Catholic. Catholics are forbidden to inherit the British throne as of 1701.)
The Jacobite's candidate was Anne's Catholic half-brother, the pretender James III and VIII.
George II ruled until 1760. The Jacobite attempts to overthrow the Hanovers effectively had ended by 1746. The Jacobite Risings continued and intensified after the installation of George I, however.
Next: some of the Jacobite battles; the Clans. Another important Scottish-American.